Springfield, Massachusetts - aeropuerto más cercano a Springfield Ma

Springfield es una ciudad en el oeste de Nueva Inglaterra, y la sede del Condado de Hampden, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos. Springfield se encuentra en la orilla oriental del río Connecticut cerca de su confluencia con tres ríos; el río occidental de Westfield, el río del este Chicopee, y el río del Este molino. En fecha el censo 2010, la población de la ciudad era de 153.060. Metropolitan Springfield, como una de las dos áreas metropolitanas de Massachusetts (el otro es Boston), tenía una población estimada de 698 903 a partir de 2009.

El primero de Springfield en el Nuevo Mundo, es la ciudad más grande en el oeste de Nueva Inglaterra, y la capital urbana, económica y cultural de Connecticut River Valley de Massachusetts (coloquialmente conocido como el Valle de Pioneer). Es la tercera ciudad más grande en Massachusetts y el cuarto más grande de Nueva Inglaterra, después de Boston, Worcester y Providence, Rhode Island. Springfield tiene varios apodos - La Ciudad de las Primicias, debido a sus muchas innovaciones (ver más abajo para una lista parcial); La ciudad de los hogares, debido a su arquitectura residencial victoriana; y aro en la ciudad, porque el baloncesto - uno de los deportes más populares del mundo - fue inventado en Springfield.

Hartford, la capital del Estado de Connecticut, se encuentra a sólo 23,9 millas (38 km) al sur de Springfield, en la orilla occidental del río Connecticut. El aeropuerto internacional de Bradley, que se encuentra 12 millas (19 km) al sur de Metro Center Springfield, es el aeropuerto de Hartford-Springfield. La región de Hartford-Springfield se conoce como el Corredor del Conocimiento porque alberga más de 160.000 estudiantes universitarios y más de 32 universidades y colegios de artes liberales - la segunda mayor concentración de instituciones de enseñanza superior en los Estados Unidos. La propia ciudad de Springfield es el hogar de la universidad de Springfield; Western University de Nueva Inglaterra; Colegio Americano Internacional; y Springfield Technical Community College, entre otras instituciones de educación superior.



Historia

Springfield fue fundada en 1636 por el Inglés puritano William Pynchon como "Agawam Plantación" bajo la administración de la colonia de Connecticut. En 1641 fue rebautizado después de la ciudad natal de Pynchon de Springfield, Essex, Inglaterra, a raíz de los incidentes que precipitaron el asentamiento de unirse a la Colonia de la Bahía de Massachusetts. Durante su existencia temprana, Springfield floreció tanto como un asentamiento agrícola y puesto comercial, a pesar de su prosperidad disminuyó dramáticamente durante (y después) de la Guerra del Rey Philip en 1675, cuando los nativos pusieron sitio a la misma y se quemó hasta los cimientos.

El asentamiento original - el centro de la actual Springfield - se encuentra encima de acantilados en la confluencia de cuatro ríos, en el nexo de las rutas comerciales a Boston, Albany, Nueva York y Montreal, y con algunos de los suelos más fértiles del noreste de Estados de los Estados. En 1777, la ubicación de Springfield en numerosas encrucijadas llevó George Washington y Henry Knox establecer Armería Nacional de los Estados Unidos en Springfield, que produjo el primer fusil de Estados Unidos en 1794, y más tarde el famoso rifle Springfield. Desde 1777 hasta su cierre durante la Guerra de Vietnam, la Springfield Armory atrajo a trabajadores calificados a Springfield, por lo que es el centro de toda la vida de los Estados Unidos para la fabricación de precisión. La casi captura del Arsenal de Estados Unidos en Springfield durante la Rebelión de Shays de 1787 condujo directamente a la formación de la Convención Constitucional de Estados Unidos.

Durante los siglos 19 y 20, de Springfield produjeron muchas innovaciones, entre ellos el primer diccionario Inglés-Americana (1805, Merriam Webster); el primer uso de partes intercambiables y la línea de montaje en la fabricación, (1819, Thomas Blanchard;) el primer coche sin caballos de América, (1825, Thomas Blanchard;) el descubrimiento y patente de caucho vulcanizado, (1844, Charles Goodyear;) el primer coche con motor de gasolina estadounidense, (1893, Duryea Brothers); la primera compañía de motocicletas éxito, (1901, "indio"); una de las primeras estaciones de radio comerciales de Estados Unidos, (1921, WBZ, transmitido desde el Hotel Kimball); y el más famoso, el segundo más popular deporte del mundo, baloncesto, (1891, el Dr. James Naismith).

Springfield sufrió un descenso prolongado durante la segunda mitad del siglo 20, en gran parte debido a: el desmantelamiento del arsenal de Springfield en 1969; las decisiones de planificación de la ciudad pobres, como la ubicación de la elevación de la I-91 a lo largo de la ciudad de Connecticut Riverfront; y el declive general de la industria en todo el noreste de Estados Unidos durante los años 1980 y 1990, Springfield desarrolló una reputación nacional por el crimen, la corrupción política y el clientelismo, que está en marcado contraste con la reputación de que gozaba en gran parte de la historia de Estados Unidos. Durante principios del siglo 21, Springfield trató de superar su rebaja en la reputación a través de proyectos de revitalización a largo plazo, y emprendió varios proyectos grandes, pero-sin terminar, incluyendo un tren de alta velocidad $ 1 mil millón (New Haven-Hartford-Springfield tren de alta velocidad; ) una propuesta de $ 1,000,000,000 Casino MGM; y varios otros proyectos de construcción y de revitalización.

Aeropuerto más cercano a Springfield Ma vídeo



Geografía

Springfield está situado en 42 ° 6? 45? N 72 ° 32? 51? W (42.112411, -72.547455). Según la oficina de censo de Estados Unidos, la ciudad tiene un área total de 33.2 millas cuadradas (86 km 2), de los cuales 32,1 millas cuadradas (83 km 2) es tierra y 1.1 millas cuadradas (2,8 km 2) (3,31%) se agua. Una vez apodada "La Ciudad en un bosque," características Springfield durante 4.0 millas cuadradas (10,4 km 2) de zona verde urbana, (lo que equivale a 12% de su superficie total.)

Situado en el fértil río Connecticut Valley, rodeado de montañas, acantilados y colinas en todas las direcciones cardinales, Springfield se encuentra en la orilla oriental del río Connecticut, cerca de su confluencia con dos grandes ríos tributarios - el río Westfield occidental, que desemboca en Connecticut opuesta de Springfield South End Puente; y el río oriental Chicopee, que desemboca en el Connecticut menos de 0,5 millas cuadradas (1,3 km 2) millas al norte de Springfield, en la ciudad de Chicopee, (que constituía uno de los barrios más populosos de Springfield hasta que se separa y se convirtió en un municipio independiente en 1852.) La línea del estado de Connecticut se encuentra a sólo 4 millas (6 km) al sur de Springfield, junto al suburbio rico de Longmeadow, que a su vez separados de Springfield en 1783.

Densamente urbana del distrito de Springfield Metro Center que rodea la calle principal es relativamente plana, y sigue la trayectoria norte-sur del río Connecticut; sin embargo, como uno se mueve hacia el este, la ciudad se convierte cada vez más montañoso.

Aparte de sus ríos, segundo más importante característica topográfica de Springfield es la ciudad de 735 acres (297 ha) Forest Park, diseñado por el renombrado arquitecto paisajista Frederick Law Olmsted. Forest Park se encuentra en la esquina suroeste de la ciudad, rodeado por los distritos de Springfield atractivo jardín, Parque Forestal y Forest Park Heights, que cuentan con más de 600 mansiones Señora pintada Victorian. Forest Park también limita con la ciudad más rica de Massachusetts occidental ", Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Springfield comparte fronteras con otros suburbios adinerados como Longmeadow, Wilbraham, Ludlow y la ciudad de-industrialización de Chicopee. Las pequeñas ciudades de Agawam y West Springfield, Massachusetts se encuentran a menos de una milla (1,6 km) a través del río Connecticut del Metro Center de Springfield.

La ciudad de Springfield también es propietaria de la Springfield Country Club, que se encuentra en la ciudad autónoma de West Springfield, Massachusetts, el último de los que se separó forma Springfield en 1774.



Clima

Springfield, al igual que otras ciudades en el sur de Nueva Inglaterra, tiene un clima continental húmedo (Köppen: Dfa) con cuatro estaciones bien diferenciadas y las precipitaciones distribuidas uniformemente a lo largo del año. Los inviernos son fríos, con un promedio diario en enero de alrededor de 26 ° F (-3 ° C). Durante el invierno, las tormentas Nor'easter pueden caer nevadas importantes en Springfield y el valle del río Connecticut. Las temperaturas por debajo de 0 ° F (-18 ° C) puede ocurrir cada año, aunque la zona no experimenta las cantidades altas nevadas y viento borrascoso promedios de las ciudades cercanas, como Worcester, Massachusetts y Albany, Nueva York.

Veranos de Springfield son muy cálido y húmedo a veces. Durante el verano, varias veces al mes, en los días calurosos tormentas por la tarde se desarrollarán cuando el aire caliente inestable choca con acercarse a los frentes fríos. El promedio diario en julio es de alrededor de 74 ° F (23 ° C). Por lo general varios días durante el verano superan (32 ° C) 90 ° F, lo que constituye una "ola de calor". Temperaturas de primavera y otoño son generalmente agradable, con días templados y suaves, noches frescas. Promedios de precipitación 46.7 pulgadas (1186 mm) al año, y los promedios nevadas 49 pulgadas (124 cm), la mayoría de los cuales cae desde mediados de diciembre hasta principios de marzo. Aunque no imposible, los fenómenos meteorológicos extremos como los huracanes y los tornados ocurren con poca frecuencia en Springfield en comparación con otras zonas del país. En las ocasiones en que los huracanes han golpeado de Nueva Inglaterra, en el interior de Springfield, río arriba de ubicación ha hecho que sus daños a ser considerablemente menor que las ciudades del litoral, como New Haven, Connecticut y Providence, Rhode Island.

El 1 de junio de 2011, Springfield fue directamente afectada por el segundo tornado que jamás haya golpeado Massachusetts. Con velocidades de viento superiores a 160 mph (257 km / h), el Springfield tornado 2011 dejó 4 muertos, cientos de heridos, y más de 500 personas sin hogar en la ciudad de Springfield solo. El tornado causó cientos de millones de dólares en daños a Springfield y destruyó casi todo en una mujer de 39 millas (63 km) Ruta de Westfield, Massachusetts para Charlton, Massachusetts. Fue el primer tornado mortal de huelga de Massachusetts desde el 29 de mayo de 1995.




Gobierno

Ciudad de Springfield

La ciudad de Springfield cuenta con una forma fuerte alcalde de gobierno de la ciudad. El alcalde de Springfield es alcalde Domenic J. Sarno, que ha estado sirviendo desde 2008.

La burocracia gubernamental de la ciudad consta de 33 departamentos, que administran una amplia gama de servicios municipales, por ejemplo, la policía, bomberos, obras públicas, parques, la salud pública, la vivienda, el desarrollo económico, y el Sistema de Escuelas Públicas de Springfield - segundo sistema escolar público más grande de Nueva Inglaterra .

Órgano legislativo de Springfield es su Ayuntamiento, que ofrece una mezcla de ocho representantes del barrio - a pesar de que la ciudad tiene más del doble de ese número de barrios, lo que resulta en varios "barrios" incongruentes - y cinco en-grandes representantes de la ciudad, varios de los cuales tienen servido por más de una década.

El Departamento de Bomberos de Springfield ofrece protección contra incendios y servicios médicos de emergencia a la ciudad y tiene la distinción de ser uno de los departamentos de bomberos establecidas más antiguas de los Estados Unidos.

Finanzas

En 2003, la ciudad de Springfield se encontraba al borde de la quiebra financiera, y por lo tanto a manos de una Junta de Control de Finanzas designado por el Commonwealth hasta 2009. Disuelto en junio de ese año, el Consejo Regulador hizo grandes avances de estabilización finanzas de Springfield. Mientras Springfield ha logrado el equilibrio presupuestario desde el año 2009, la ciudad no ha ampliado su base de impuestos, y por lo tanto muchos de sus proyectos de obras públicas - que han estado en la tubería durante años, algunas incluso décadas - permanecerán sin terminar, (por ejemplo, las reparaciones a Springfield de Campanile hito.). Springfield está siendo considerado para un proyecto de desarrollo de $ 800 millones; MGM Springfield. Para muchos esto es una hazaña impresionante dado los desastres naturales y los recortes continuos a ayudante de estado durante la Gran Recesión.

Las finanzas de la ciudad han hecho un gran paso bajo (2008-presente) el liderazgo del alcalde Domenic J. Sarno; a pesar de enfrentar los desastres naturales y de origen humano: 01 de junio 2011 tornado Springfield tornado, huracán Irene, un monstruo octubre tormenta de nieve (que en cierto modo era más perjudicial que el tornado), y una gran explosión de gas en el centro de la ciudad en 2012. El Ciudad logró las recuperaciones con gran habilidad y ha salido en gran forma; incluso recibir una actualización de bonos de servicios de inversión Standard and Poor. Además la ciudad de Springfield ha recibido el Premio Presupuesto Distinguido del GFOA durante seis años consecutivos.

Juzgados y disminución de la delincuencia: 2005-2009

Como cualquier otro municipio en Massachusetts, Springfield tiene ninguna rama judicial en sí. Más bien, utiliza los tribunales estatales con sede en Springfield, que incluyen corte de distrito Springfield y Hampden Corte Superior del Condado, los cuales se basan en Springfield. El Tribunal de Distrito Federal también escucha regularmente casos en Springfield - ahora en un galardonado edificio de arquitectura en la calle State, construido en 2009.

Durante la década de 1990 y la primera década del siglo 21, Springfield experimentó una ola de crímenes violentos que impactó negativamente en la reputación de la ciudad, tanto a nivel regional como nacional. En un momento en la primera década del siglo 21, Springfield clasificado tan alta como 18 en anual de los Estados Unidos "Ciudad Crimen Clasificaciones". Desde aproximadamente 2006, la ciudad de Springfield ha experimentado una dramática, (casi el 50%) de bajada de la delincuencia en toda la ciudad. En 2010, Springfield 35o clasificado en los Estados Unidos Ciudad Crimen Mundial - su segunda calificación más baja en los últimos años, (en 2009, ocupó el puesto número 51). Valoración de la delincuencia actual de Springfield de 142 se ha reducido aproximadamente un 50% desde sus alturas en las finales de 1990 y la primera década del siglo 21.

Las ciudades de Hartford, Connecticut y New Haven, Connecticut, los cuales en 2007 se cita como ciudades "resurgimiento" que Springfield debería tratar de emular por el Banco de la Reserva Federal de Boston, están ahora por casi todas las medidas estadísticas, significativamente más peligroso que Springfield. (New Haven actualmente ocupa el 18o en el anual de Estados Unidos Ciudad Crimen puntuación, y Hartford ocupa el decimonoveno). El Urban Land Institute afirma que actualmente "la percepción de la delincuencia [en Springfield] parece ser peor que la realidad."

Política

Springfield se convirtió en una ciudad el 25 de mayo de 1852, por decreto de la legislatura de Massachusetts, después de una disputa interna de una década que dio lugar a la partición de Chicopee de Springfield, y por lo tanto la pérdida de 2/5 de la población de la ciudad.

Springfield, al igual que todos los municipios de Massachusetts, goza de autonomía limitada. El estatuto actual de la ciudad, en vigor desde 1959, utiliza un gobierno "alcalde fuerte", con más poder concentrado en el alcalde, como en Boston y otros lugares. El alcalde que representa poder ejecutivo de la ciudad presenta el presupuesto, nombra a los comisarios y jefes de departamento, y en general se extiende la ciudad. El alcalde es el ex concejal Domenic Sarno, elegido 06 de noviembre 2007 por un margen de 52.54% a 47.18% contra el actual Charles Ryan. Él asumió el cargo en enero de 2008. En noviembre de 2009 y 2011, Sarno ganó la reelección, aunque - en este último caso - con sólo 22% de los votantes de Springfield elegibles votan.

El consejo de la ciudad de Springfield, formado por trece miembros, es la rama legislativa de la ciudad. Elegido cada año impar, ocho de sus miembros son elegidos para representar "pupilos", que están hechas de (a veces incongruentes) agrupaciones de barrios Springfield, por ejemplo, étnicos barrios de Springfield North End - Memorial Square y Brightwood - compartir un pabellón con Metro Center, el centro de Springfield. Cinco concejales son elegidos en general. El Ayuntamiento pasa presupuesto de la ciudad, lleva a cabo audiencias, crea departamentos y comisiones, y modifica las leyes de zonificación.

Cámaras de la oficina y del consejo municipal del alcalde se encuentran en el ayuntamiento - parte del Grupo Municipal en Metro Center, Springfield. La Junta de Control de Finanzas se reunió allí también.

Cambie a alejar representación

En el pasado, se han hecho esfuerzos para proporcionar a cada uno de la ciudad ocho salas un asiento en el consejo de la ciudad, en lugar del formato actual en general. Aún habría algunos asientos en-grandes bajo este formato. El argumento principal de esto ha sido que los Consejeros de la ciudad viven en sólo cuatro de las salas de la ciudad. Una iniciativa para cambiar la composición no pudo pasar el Ayuntamiento dos veces. En 2007 el alcalde Carlos V. Ryan y concejal José Tosedo propusieron una enmienda a casa-regla que ampliaría el consejo de trece miembros añadir cuatro escaños a los nueve miembros actuales en general del sistema, pero asignan entre las ocho de barrio y cinco en asientos de gran tamaño. Esta petición de autogobierno fue adoptada por el Ayuntamiento de 8-1, y más tarde fue aprobada por el Senado del Estado y de la Cámara y firmado por el Gobernador. El día de las elecciones, 6 de noviembre de 2007 habitantes de la ciudad votaron abrumadoramente a favor de cambiar el Comité del Consejo y de la Escuela Ciudad. La iniciativa de ley que estableció un nuevo consejo con cinco asientos en-grandes y ocho plazas del barrio pasó de 3-1. El 3 de noviembre de 2009, Springfield celebró elecciones del barrio de primera en una generación.

Los resultados de las elecciones de 2009 fueron las siguientes.



Barrios

Para una descripción topográfica más completa, ver el artículo sobre: ​​barrios Springfield, Massachusetts.

La ciudad de Springfield se divide en 17 barrios diferentes; en orden alfabético, son:

  • Bay - cuenta Blunt Park. En términos demográficos, la bahía es principalmente afroamericanos.
  • Boston Road - cuenta con el Eastfield Mall. Principalmente carácter comercial, que cuenta con plazas comerciales diseñadas para viajes en automóvil.
  • Brightwood - cuenta con numerosos edificios de especialidad Baystate Salud. Amputada del resto de Springfield por la carretera elevada Interestatal 91, se hacen sugerencias académicas para reunir al barrio con la ciudad.
  • Este Parque Forestal - cuenta Cathedral High School. Principalmente residencial de clase media-alta en el carácter. Fronteras Longmeadow, Massachusetts.
  • East Springfield - cuenta con Smith & Wesson y el Grupo de Alimentos Rendimiento. Residencial y de la clase trabajadora en su carácter.
  • Forest Park - cuenta con renombrados 735 acres de Frederick Law Olmsted (3,0 km 2) Parque Forestal y el Distrito Histórico Bosque Park Heights, (establecido 1975). Residencial de carácter, con un distrito comercial de "The X" y un barrio jardín de la clase alta que rodea el parque de Olmsted.
  • Indian Orchard - cuenta con una calle principal bien definido e históricos edificios del molino que se han convertido los espacios de artistas. Antiguamente un suburbio de Springfield, Indian Orchard desarrollado por separado como milltown en el río de Chicopee antes de unirse a Springfield. Principalmente residencial en carácter, Indian Orchard ofrece Lake Lorraine State Park, el parque de Hubbard, y los mercados de agricultores semanales.
  • Liberty Heights - cuenta con tres hospitales clasificados a nivel nacional de Springfield: Baystate Health, Mercy Medical, y de los niños del hospital Shriner. Principalmente residencial y médica de carácter, que cuenta con una población demográficamente diversa. Libertad Heights incluye distritos eclécticos como Hungry Hill y Atwater Park y tercero mayor parque de Springfield, Van Horn Park.
  • El Distrito Histórico McKnight - cuenta con el mayor arsenal del Corredor del Conocimiento de la histórica, la arquitectura victoriana, incluyendo más de 900 Painted Ladies. Principalmente residencial en carácter, McKnight fue barrio residencial primero planificada de los Estados Unidos. El distrito comercial de McKnight se llama Plaza de Mason. Características American International College. En términos demográficos, McKnight cuenta con poblaciones significativas de residentes estadounidenses y LGBT africanos.
  • Memorial Plaza - cuenta con el distrito comercial de la North End.
  • Metro Center - cuenta con casi todos los principales lugares de interés cultural de la región. Comercial, cultural, cívica, y cada vez más residencial de carácter. Características del distrito comercial del centro, El Barrio Club - con más de 60 clubes, restaurantes y bares - numerosos festivales, instituciones culturales, instituciones educativas, y sitios históricos importantes.
  • North End - no es técnicamente un barrio de Springfield, pero en lugar de tres barrios del norte de Springfield. Incluye Brightwood, que es residencial y médico en carácter, pero aislado del resto de la ciudad por la carretera interestatal 91; Memorial Plaza, que es de carácter comercial; y Liberty Heights, que es médico y residencial en carácter. En términos demográficos, el extremo norte es predominantemente puertorriqueño.
  • Antiguo Hill - cuenta con la universidad de Springfield. Residencial en carácter. Bordeando el lago Massasoit. Antiguo Hill es principalmente latina.
  • Pine Point - cuenta con la sede de MassMutual, una compañía Fortune 100. Principalmente de clase media y residencial en carácter.
  • Seis Esquinas - Características Mulberry Street en el distrito histórico de Ridgewood (establecido 1977); el Distrito Baja arce Histórico (establecido 1977;) y el distrito histórico de Maple Hill, (establecida 1977). Urbana y residencial en carácter.
  • Dieciséis Acres - cuenta con el oeste de Nueva Inglaterra y la Universidad SABIS Escuela Internacional. Suburban en carácter. Incluye gran parte de la post-Segunda Guerra Mundial la arquitectura suburbana de Springfield.
  • South End - cuenta con numerosos restaurantes italo-americanos, festivales y lugares de interés. Urbano y comercial de carácter, este barrio fue duramente golpeada por el 01 de junio 2011 tornado. Incluye el Basketball Hall of Fame Naismith Memorial; sin embargo, está separado de él por la Interestatal 91.
  • Upper Hill - cuenta Wesson Park. Bordeando el lago Massasoit. Residencial en carácter. Situado entre Springfield College y American International College.


Economía

De Springfield Top Five Industrias (en orden, por número de trabajadores) son: Comercio y Transporte; Educación y Servicios de Salud; Fabricación; Turismo y Hospitalidad; y de Gobierno. Springfield se considera que tiene una "economía madura", que protege a la ciudad en un grado durante las recesiones y la inhibe en cierta medida durante burbujas. Springfield se considera que tiene uno de los mejores mercados multiculturales emergentes de Estados Unidos - la ciudad cuenta con una población 33% latina con poder adquisitivo que ha aumentado en 295% entre 1990 y 2006. Más del 60% de los hispanos de Springfield han llegado durante los últimos 20 años.

Con 25 universidades y colegios a menos de 15 millas (24 km) de Springfield, (tanto norte y sur), incluyendo colegios varias de las más prestigiosas universidades de Estados Unidos y de artes liberales, y más de seis instituciones dentro de la propia ciudad, el Hartford-Springfield área metropolitana que se ha denominado el Corredor del Conocimiento por educadores regionales, autoridades cívicas y empresarios - que promocionan sus 32 universidades y colegios de artes liberales, numerosos hospitales de gran prestigio, y cerca de 120 mil estudiantes. Las universidades y colegios del Corredor del Conocimiento proporcionan la región, con una fuerza laboral educada, lo que arroja un PIB anual de más de mil millones de $ 100 - más de al menos 16 estados de los EEUU. Hartford-Springfield se ha convertido en el hogar de un número de empresas biotecnológicas y centros de computación de alta velocidad. A partir de 2009 Springfield se ubica como el más importante centro de alta tecnología 24 en los Estados Unidos, con aproximadamente 14 mil puestos de trabajo de alta tecnología.

En 2010, el ingreso promedio de los hogares era $ 35.236. La mediana de los ingresos para la familia era $ 51.110. El ingreso per cápita fue de $ 16.863. Acerca de 21,3% de las familias y el 26,8% de la población estaba por debajo de la línea de la pobreza, incluyendo 40.0% de los cuales son menores de 18 años y 17.5% de ésos son mayores de 65 años.

Sede de Negocios

La ciudad de Springfield es el centro económico del oeste de Massachusetts. Cuenta con la mayor concentración del valle pionero del comercio minorista, manufactura, entretenimiento, banca, legal y grupos médicos. Springfield es el hogar de la Mancomunidad de la mayor compañía Fortune 100 de Massachusetts, MassMutual Financial Group. También es el hogar de la mayor productora mundial de armas cortas, Smith & Wesson, fundada en 1852. Es el hogar de Merriam Webster, el diccionario American-Inglés primero y más leída, fundada en 1806. También sirve como la sede de la profesional estadounidense Hockey League, la liga de menor importancia de la NHL, Peter Pan Bus, y Big Y Supermercados, entre otros negocios.

Springfield es también el hogar de la Comunidad de tercer empleador más grande de Massachusetts, Baystate Salud, con más de 10.000 empleados. Baystate es el campus occidental de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Tufts. Baystate Salud se encuentra en medio de una adición de $ 300 millones - apodado "El Hospital del Futuro", que es el proyecto de construcción más grande de Nueva Inglaterra. Además de Baystate, Springfield cuenta con otros dos hospitales clasificados a nivel nacional; Mercy Medical, dirigido por las Hermanas de la Providencia, y el Hospital Shriners para Niños.

Empresas con sede en Springfield

  • La Liga Americana de Hockey, la liga de desarrollo principal de la NHL.
  • Baystate Salud - más grande proveedor de empleador y de la salud en el oeste de Massachusetts; Tercera mayor empleador en Massachusetts, la construcción de los $ 300 millones de euros "Hospital del Futuro".
  • Big Y - una cadena de supermercados regional que fue fundada originalmente en alrededores Chicopee, pero ahora tiene su sede en Springfield. Big Y opera más de 50 supermercados en todo Massachusetts y Connecticut.
  • Breck Shampoo - Fundada en Springfield en 1936.
  • Atlético Suministros de Fenton - proveedores de artículos deportivos fundada en 1924.
  • Hampden Bank - Fundada en Springfield en 1852. Con sede en Springfield.
  • Salud de Nueva Inglaterra
  • Mutual Life Insurance Company - Fundada en 1851. MassMutual es la segunda mayor compañía Fortune 100 con sede en Massachusetts (lista 2010). Las oficinas centrales están en la calle State.
  • Merriam-Webster - Editorial del Diccionario original de Webster
  • NuVo Bank - Fundada en 2008. Con sede en Springfield.
  • Peter Pan Bus Lines - Con sede en Metro Center, Peter Pan se trasladará su sede a Union Station a su renovación en 2013.
  • Smith & Wesson - Fundada en 1852, Smith & Wesson es el mayor productor de armas de fuego de Estados Unidos. La empresa mantiene su sede corporativa en la avenida Roosevelt en East Springfield.

Compañías de Springfield: los suburbios y el pasado

  • Forbes y Wallace - almacenes regionales, cerradas en 1974
  • Amistoso Ice Cream Corporation - Fundada en Springfield, con sede en el suburbio Springfield de Wilbraham, Massachusetts.
  • Revista Good Housekeeping - Fundada en Springfield en 1885.
  • Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company - primera marca de motocicletas de Estados Unidos, fue fundada por George M. Hendee y C. Oscar Hedström en Springfield en 1901
  • Milton Bradley Company - empresa de juegos estadounidense establecida en 1860. Con sede en Springfield, hasta su traslado a los suburbios de Longmeadow, Massachusetts.
  • M-1 Rifle - producciones comenzó en 1919
  • Monarch Seguros - se declaró en quiebra, mientras que la construcción de rascacielos más alto de Springfield, Monarch Place.
  • Rolls-Royce - Rolls-Royce de América Inc. se formó en 1919 para satisfacer la creciente mercado de automóviles de lujo. Una planta de fabricación se estableció en Hendee Street en Springfield, Massachusetts, en el edificio de la antigua 'American Wire Wheel Company'. Con los años, 1.200 empleados de la fábrica producen 1.703 Fantasmas de plata y 1.241 Phantoms, con el primer chasis de Silver Ghost terminado en 1921. La principal crisis de 1929 del mercado de valores al cierre de la planta en 1931. El 1996 Rolls-Royce Silver Spur Springfield edición se hizo para conmemorar Rolls-Royce del 75 aniversario de los Estados Unidos.
  • Sheraton Hotels and Resorts - fundada en Springfield en 1937 con la compra de El Stonehaven Hotel, y más tarde el famoso Hotel Kimball.
  • Springfield Armory - Fundada por George Washington en 1777; cerrado por el Pentágono en 1968.


Demografía

En fecha el censo de 2010, había 153,060 personas que residen en la ciudad de Springfield. Esta cifra no incluye a muchos de los 17,000-plus de pregrado y postgrado de la universidad los estudiantes que residen en Springfield durante el año académico.

Según el Censo de 2010, había 61,706 unidades de vivienda en Springfield, de los cuales 56.752 estaban ocupadas. Este fue el más alto promedio de ocupación de viviendas entre los cuatro, distintas occidentales metrópolis de Nueva Inglaterra, (las otras tres son de Hartford, New Haven y Bridgeport, Connecticut.) Además, a partir de 2010, Springfield cuenta con el ratio de ocupación dueño de casa promedio más alto entre las cuatro metrópolis occidentales de Nueva Inglaterra en el 50% - 73,232 de Springfield viven en unidades ocupadas por sus propietarios, frente a 74.111 en las unidades de alquiler. En comparación, a partir del Censo de 2010, New Haven cuenta con una tasa de ocupación del propietario del 31%; Hartford de 26%; y Bridgeport del 43%.

Según el Censo de 2010, Springfield tenía una población de 153.060, de los cuales 72.573 (47,4%) eran hombres y 80.487 (52,6%) eran mujeres. En cuanto a la edad, 73,0% eran mayores de 18 años y 10.9% eran mayores de 65 años de edad; la edad media es de 32,2 años. La edad media para los varones es de 30,2 años y 34,1 años para las mujeres.

En términos de raza y etnia, Springfield es 51.8% blancos, 22.3% Negro o afroamericanos, 0.6% de la India y Alaska nativo americano, 2,4% de Asia (1,2% Vietnamita), 0.1% nativos de Hawai y otras islas del Pacífico, 18.0% a partir de algunos Otra Raza, y el 4,7% a partir de dos o más razas (1,5% el blanco y Negro o afroamericanos; 1,0% blancos y alguna otra raza). Los hispanos y latinos de cualquier raza compuesta por 38,8% de la población (33,2% puertorriqueño). Los blancos no hispanos eran el 36,7% de la población en 2010, frente al 84,1% en 1970.

Ingresos

Los datos son de las estimaciones 2009-2013 American Community Survey de 5 años.



Educación

Universidades y colegios

El Corredor del Conocimiento cuenta con la segunda mayor concentración de instituciones de educación superior en los Estados Unidos, con 32 universidades y colegios de artes liberales y más de 160.000 estudiantes universitarios en Greater Hartford-Springfield. Dentro de 16 millas (26 km) de Metro Center de Springfield, hay 18 universidades y colegios de artes liberales, que se inscriben aproximadamente 100 mil estudiantes.

Dentro de la ciudad de Springfield en sí son tres colegios y universidades privadas bien considerado: Springfield College, Western University de Nueva Inglaterra, y la American International College - además de la estatal Universidad de programa de planificación urbana de Massachusetts Amherst, y Springfield Technical Community College, Massachusetts 'único colegio de la comunidad dedicada a la tecnología.

A partir de 2015, Springfield atrae a más de 20.000 estudiantes universitarios por año. Sus universidades y colegios incluyen Western University de Nueva Inglaterra, famoso por sus programas de derecho y de farmacia; Springfield College, famosa por ser la cuna del deporte del baloncesto (1891) y la primera clase de educación física de la nación, (1912), que se especializa en el deporte y medicina deportiva; American International College, fundado para educar a la población inmigrante de América, es notable como el inventor del programa del Congreso Modelo; Universidad de Massachusetts Amherst trasladó su programa de postgrado centro de diseño urbano de la plaza de Corte en Metro Center, y ha indicado que el compromiso más grande (probablemente en el antiguo edificio del hotel pronto-a-ser renovado en la Plaza de Corte) es posible en el próximo año. También, Cambridge College Centro Regional de Springfield, una institución que atiende a los adultos que trabajan, se encuentra en Springfield.

Varias de las instituciones de mayor Springfield encuentran entre los más prestigiosos y bien financiada en el mundo. Por ejemplo, el Amherst College, 15 millas (24 km) al norte de Springfield, y Smith College, 13 millas (21 km) al norte de Springfield, alinean constantemente entre los 10 colegios de artes liberales de Estados Unidos. Mount Holyoke College - primera universidad de las mujeres de los Estados Unidos - consistentemente se clasifica entre las mejores 15 universidades de Estados Unidos, y se encuentra a sólo 9 millas (14 km) al norte de Springfield. Hampshire College, the creative and free-thinking university that has produced luminaries such as the documentarian Ken Burns and critically renowned author and mountain climber Jon Krakauer, is located only 14 miles (23 km) north of Springfield. The 30,000-student University of Massachusetts Amherst is located 16 miles (26 km) north of Springfield. Approximately 10 miles (16 km) west of Springfield, across the Memorial Bridge in Westfield, is Westfield State University, founded by noted education reformer Horace Mann. Westfield was the first university in America to admit students without regard to sex, race, or economic status. Its current enrollment is approximately 6,000 students.

Just outside of Springfield's northern city limits is Elms College, a fine Catholic university that for many years educated only women. Now Elms College is co-educational. Likewise, just 2 miles (3.2 km) below Springfield's southern city limit in Longmeadow is the park-like campus of Bay Path College, which once also admitted only women. Within the past decade, Bay Path has eased its restriction and started to admit men to certain programs.

Community colleges

In 1968, following the Pentagon's controversial closing of the Springfield Armory, Springfielders founded Springfield Technical Community College on 35 acres (14.2 ha) behind the Springfield Armory National Park. Springfield Technical Community College is the only "technical" community college in Massachusetts, and was founded to continue Springfield's tradition of technical innovation.

Holyoke Community College, 8 miles (13 km) north of Springfield, is Greater Springfield's more traditional community college.

Public schools (K-12)

Springfield has the second largest school district in Massachusetts and in New England. It operates 38 elementary schools, six high schools, six middle schools (6-8) and seven specialized schools. The main high schools in the city include the High School of Commerce, Springfield Central High School, Roger L Putnam Vocational-Technical High School, and the Springfield High School of Science and Technology, better known as Sci-Tech. There are also two charter secondary schools in the City of Springfield: SABIS International, which ranks among the top 5% of high schools nationally in academic quality, and the Hampden Charter School of Science. The city's School Committee passed a new neighborhood school program to improve schools and reduce the growing busing costs associated with the current plan. The plan faces stiff opposition from parents and minority groups who claim that the schools are still unequal. The city is required under a 1970s court order to balance schools racially, which had necessitated busing. However, since then, the city and the school's population has shifted and many of the neighborhoods are more integrated, calling into question the need for busing at all. Though the plan is likely to be challenged in court, the state Board of Education decided it did not have authority to review it, sidestepping the volatile issue while effectively condoning it.

Private elementary

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield operated five Catholic elementary schools in the city, all of which were consolidated into a single entity, St. Michael's Academy, in the autumn of 2009. The non-denominational Pioneer Valley Christian School is located in the suburban Sixteen Acres neighborhood, educating K-12. Non-sectarian elementary schools within the City of Springfield include the Pioneer Valley Montessori School in Springfield's Sixteen Acres neighborhood and Orchard Children's Corner in suburban Indian Orchard, a Pre-Kindergarten, among others.

Private secondary

The Diocese runs Cathedral High School, which is the largest Catholic high school in Western Massachusetts. A non-denominational Christian school, the Pioneer Valley Christian School, is located in the suburban Sixteen Acres neighborhood of the city. Two nonsectarian private schools are also located in Springfield: Commonwealth Academy located on the former campus of the MacDuffie School (which moved to Granby, Massachusetts in 2011 after 130 years in Springfield), and teaches grades four through twelve, soon to enroll students in grades K-12; and the Academy Hill School, which teaches kindergarten through grade eight.

Within 15 miles (24 km) of Springfield are many private prep schools, which can serve as day schools for Springfield students; they include: the Williston Northampton School in Easthampton, Massachusetts; Wilbraham & Monson Academy in Wilbraham, Massachusetts; and Suffield Academy in Suffield, Connecticut.



Biblioteca

Efforts to establish the Springfield Public Library began in the 1850s. In fiscal year 2008, the city of Springfield spent 1.13% ($5,321,151) of its budget on its public library - some $35 per person. In fiscal year 2009, Springfield spent about 1% ($5,077,158) of its budget on the library - some $32 per person. Springfield has Massachusetts' 2nd largest library circulation, behind Boston.

As of 2012, the public library purchases access for its patrons to databases owned by the following companies:



Water and sewer system

The Springfield Water and Sewer Commission (created in its current form in 1996) owns several reservoirs and aqueducts, as well as hydropower and sewage treatment stations. The city purchased the Springfield Aqueduct Company in 1872.

Borden Brook Reservoir, located in the rural western Hampden County town of Blandford was completed in 1910. It feeds into the Cobble Mountain Reservoir (completed in 1931) located at the junction of the towns of Blandford, Granville and Russell. The Wild Cat Aqueduct carries water from the Cobble Mountain Reservoir to a hydroelectric generating station on the Granville-Russel border, at the Little River. Drinking water flows to the West Parish Water Filtration Plant in Westfield, and is then pumped to holding tanks at the top of Provin Mountain in Agawam.

The 1875 Ludlow Reservoir, also known as Springfield Reservoir, is maintained as an emergency water supply; it is located in Ludlow and fed via the Broad Brook Canal.

SWSC provides retail water in Springfield and Ludlow; wholesale water to Agawam, East Longmeadow, and Longmeadow; partial or peak service to Southwick, Westfield, and West Springfield; and emergency service to Chicopee and Wilbraham.



Cultura

Amusement parks and fairs

Within two miles (3 km) of Springfield are New England's largest and most popular amusement park, Six Flags New England, and its largest and most popular fair, The Big E. Six Flags New England, located across Springfield's South End Bridge in Agawam currently features 10 roller-coasters, including "Bizarro", a coaster that was ranked #1 in the world in 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. Six Flags New England also features a large water park, kid's rides, and an outdoor concert stadium, among numerous other attractions. It opens in mid-April and closes at the end of October.

The Eastern States Exposition ("The Big E") is located across Springfield's Memorial Bridge in West Springfield. The Big E serves as the New England states' collective state fair. The Big E is currently the sixth largest agricultural fair in America and brings in thousands of tourists each September-October. The Big E features rides, carnival food, music, and replicas of each of the six New England state houses, each of which is owned by its respective New England state. During the Big E, these state houses serve as consulates for the six New England states, and also serve food for which the states are known.

Arquitectura

In addition to its nickname The City of Firsts , Springfield is known as The City of Homes for its attractive architecture, which differentiates it from most medium-size, Northeastern American cities. Most of Springfield's housing stock consists of Victorian "Painted Ladies" (similar to those found in San Francisco;) however, Springfield also features Gilded Age mansions, urban condominiums buildings, brick apartment blocks, and more suburban post-World War II architecture (in the Sixteen Acres and Pine Point neighborhoods). While Springfield's architecture is attractive, much of its built-environment stems from the 19th and early 20th centuries when the city experienced a period of "intense and concentrated prosperity" - today, its Victorian architecture can be found in various states of rehabilitation and disrepair. As of 2011, Springfield's housing prices are considerably lower than nearby New England cities that do not feature such intricate architecture.

In Metro Center, some of Springfield's former hotels, factories, and other institutions have been converted into apartment buildings and luxury condominiums. For example, Springfield's ornate Classical High School (235 State Street), with its immense Victorian atrium - where Dr. Seuss, Timothy Leary, and Taj Mahal all went to high school - is now a luxury condominium building. The Hotel Kimball, (140 Chestnut Street), which hosted several US Presidents as guests and once featured the United States' first commercial radio station (WBZ), has been converted into The Kimball Towers Condominiums. The former McIntosh Shoe Company (158 Chestnut Street), one of Springfield's finest examples of the Chicago School of Architecture, has been converted into industrial-style condominiums; and the red-brick, former Milton Bradley toy factory is now Stockbridge Court Apartments (45 Willow Street). In the Ridgewood Historic District, the 1950s-futurist Mulberry House (101 Mulberry Street), is now a condominium building that features some of the finest views of Springfield.

Forest Park (and Forest Park Heights), surrounding Frederick Law Olmsted's beautiful 735 acres (297.4 ha) Forest Park, is a New England Garden District that features over 600 Victorian Painted Ladies. The McKnight National Historic District, America's first planned residential neighborhood, (1881), features over 900 Victorian Painted Ladies, many of which have been rehabilitated by Springfield's growing LGBT community. The Old Hill, Upper Hill, and Bay neighborhoods also feature this type of architecture.

Maple High, which is architecturally (and geographically) distinct from, but often included with Springfield's economically depressed Six Corners neighborhood, was Springfield's first "Gold Coast." Many mansions from the early 19th century and later gilded age stand atop a bluff on Maple Street, overlooking the Connecticut River. The Ridgewood Historic district on Ridgewood and Mulberry Streets also feature historic mansions from the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Springfield - like many mid-size Northeastern cities, eg, Hartford, Albany, and New Haven - from the 1950s-1970s, razed a significant number of historic commercial buildings in the name of urban renewal. In 1961, this included Unity Church, the first building designed by the young Henry Hobson Richardson. Springfield's Metro Center remains more aesthetically cohesive than many its peer cities; however, as elsewhere, the city currently features a patchwork of parking-lots and grand old buildings. Current efforts are underway to improve the cohesion of Springfield's Metro Center, including the completed Main Street and State Street Corridor improvement projects, the upcoming $70 million renovation to Springfield's 1926 Union Station and the renovation of the Epiphany Tower on State Street into a new hotel. New constructions include the architecturally award-winning, $57 million Moshe Safdie-designed Federal Building on State Street.

Festivales

  • Hoop City Jazz Festival : an annual event sponsored by the Springfield-headquartered Hampden Bank, which in the past has featured Springfield native and jazz legend Taj Mahal, the Average White Band, and others. In 2011 the Hoop City Jazz Festival will take place July 8-10 on Court Square, and will feature a jazz tribute to the City of New Orleans.
  • Basketball Hall of Fame Enshrinement Weekend : a week of events that culminates in the Basketball Hall of Fame's enshrinement ceremony. It features numerous VIP galas, awards dinners, and press conferences. Enshrinement takes place in Springfield's Neo-Classical Symphony Hall on Court Square. In 2011, Enshrinement Weekend will take place August 11-13.
  • Armory Big Band Concerts : annually each summer the Springfield Armory National Park and National Historic Site features 1940s big band concerts. The band dresses in period costumes, and free dance lessons are provided. In 2011, an Armory Big Band Concert will be held on July 9.
  • Springfield Gay Pride Week : Springfield celebrated its first gay pride event June 8-16, 2011. Events range from political roundtables, to film showings, to celebrations at local gay clubs. According to 2010 Census statistics, Springfield has experienced a dramatic rise in its LGBT population during the last decade, and this celebration is aimed at increasing the visibility and voice of the LGBT community and its allies.
  • Our Lady of Mount Carmel Society Festival : in Springfield's Italian South End, it is long-running tradition to celebrate Italian Feast Days, in particular during the summer. The largest of these festivals is the Our Lady of Mount Carmel Society festival, which features a parade, and numerous food stands offering all sorts of Italian foods, eg fried dough, pasta with meatballs or sausages, sausage and peppers, meatball and steak grinders, and sugar cones, cotton candy, candy apples and gelato. The festival takes place each year in mid-July.
  • Stearns Square Concert Series and Bike Nights : annually from June through September on Thursday evenings from 7 to 10pm, Springfield sponsors free live music at Stearns Square, in the heart of Metro Center's Club Quarter. Hundreds and sometimes thousands of motorcyclists attend Bike Nights , which coincide with the Stearns Square Concerts.
  • Mattoon Street Arts Festival : one of the largest annual art festivals in Springfield. In 2011, it will feature a record number of exhibitors when it takes place from September 10-11, 2011 in the Mattoon Street Historic District. The art festival takes place at the corner of Mattoon and Chestnut Streets, near the Apremont Triangle and Kimball Towers Luxury Condominiums.
  • Pioneer Valley Jewish Film Festival : each spring the Pioneer Valley Jewish Film Festival presents two weeks of films, renowned guest speakers, and events related to Jewish culture. In 2011, the festival took place from March 23 - April 11.
  • St. Patrick's Day Parade : 7 miles (11 km) north of Springfield's Metro Center, the small city of Holyoke, Massachusetts stages the United States' 2nd-largest, annual St. Patrick's Day Parade (larger than Boston's and Chicago's, but slightly smaller than New York City's). In 2011, Holyoke's St. Patrick's Day Parade attracted over 400,000 revelers.
  • World's Largest Pancake Breakfast : annually, near the city's founding date (May 14) Springfield attempts to break the Guinness Book of World Records' mark for largest number of pancakes served. 2011's event drew over 30,000 people to Main Street, where approximately 60,000 pancakes were served.
  • Star Spangled Springfield : annually on July 4, Springfield stages an evening of patriotism, pageantry and pyrotechnics. The evening begins in Court Square with a patriotic concert by the Springfield Symphony Orchestra and concludes with an elaborate fireworks display from the Memorial Bridge. Numerous hills and bluffs in Springfield afford views of the fireworks.
  • Caribbean Festival : in general held in late August each year, Springfield's Caribbean Festival celebrates the culture of the West Indies, which has increased greatly in Springfield during recent years. Highlights of the festival include a parade, dancers, floats, Caribbean music, and even a fashion show celebrating traditional Caribbean-dress.
  • The Parade of Big Balloons : since 1991, the Parade of Big Balloons has helped to usher in the holiday season in Springfield. A 75-foot (23 m) inflatable "Cat in the Hat" and a dozen or more big balloons, bands, and colorful marching contingents parade through Springfield's Metro Center at 11 am on the day after Thanksgiving. The Parade of Big Balloons starts in the city's North End and make its way down Main Street to the South End, entertaining crowds estimated at 75,000. In general, this parade is broadcast by local TV and radio affiliates.
  • Bright Nights : during the holiday season, over 600,000 lights illuminate a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) driving tour of Frederick Law Olmsted's Forest Park. Since its inception in the 1990s, the event has become a national attraction. From the new "Poinsettia Fantasy" entry to the giant Poinsettia Candles marking the exit, passengers in cars, vans, buses and campers drive by and through lighting displays including "Seuss Land," a display approved by the estate of Dr. Seuss, "Spirit of the Season," "Noah's Ark," "Victorian Village," "Barney Mansion," "Winter Woods," "North Pole Village," "Toy Land," and "Season's Greetings."

Museos

Springfield is home to five distinct museums at the Quadrangle, along with the ornate Springfield Public Library - an architecturally significant example of the City Beautiful movement. The Quadrangle's five distinct collections include the first American-made planetarium, designed and built (1937) by Frank Korkosz; the Dr Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden; the largest collection of Chinese cloisonne outside of China; and the original casting of Augustus Saint Gaudens's most famous sculpture, Puritan .

The Quadrangle's five museums are the Museum of Fine Arts, which features a large Impressionist collection; the George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum, a collection of Asian curiosities; the Springfield Science Museum, which features a life-size Tyrannosaurus Rex, and aquarium, and the United States' first planetarium; the Connecticut Valley Historical Museum, which, as visitors find out, is inextricably linked with American History; and the Museum of Springfield History, a museum about the multi-faceted city.

Springfield's Indian Orchard neighborhood is home to the RMS Titanic Historical Society's Titanic Museum. Unlike Springfield's urban Quadrangle museums, the setting for Indian Orchard's Titanic Museum looks like 1950s suburbia. Inside 208 Main Street is displayed a collection of rare artifacts that tell stories about the ill-fated ocean liner's passengers and crew.

Música

Classical music aficionados hold the progressive Springfield Symphony Orchestra in high esteem. The Springfield Symphony Orchestra performs in Springfield Symphony Hall, a venue known for its ornate, Greek Revival architecture and "perfect acoustics." The SSO's conductor is Kevin Rhodes.

Famous musicians from Springfield include blues legend Taj Mahal; the band Staind and its frontman Aaron Lewis; Linda Perry, former leader singer of 4 Non Blondes and now famous songwriter and producer; Taj Mahal's sister, Carole Fredericks, a soul singer very popular in France; numerous jazz musicians, including Joe Morello, drummer for the Dave Brubeck Quartet; Phil Woods, saxophonist for Quincy Jones; Tony MacAlpine, keyboardist and guitarist with Steve Vai; and Paul Weston, composer for Frank Sinatra, among many others.

In 2011, Springfield's music scene was eclectic. It featured a notable heavy rock scene, from which the bands Gaiah, Staind, All That Remains, Shadows Fall, and The Acacia Strain rose to national prominence. Jazz and blues rival rock in popularity. Each summer, the Springfield-headquartered Hampden Bank sponsors the annual Hoops City Jazz & Art Festival, a three-day event that draws approximately 30,000 people to Metro Center to hear varieties of different jazz music - from smooth jazz, to hard bop, to New Orleans-style jazz. Headliners have included Springfield great Taj Mahal, the Average White Band, and Poncho Sanchez.

Fifteen miles north in the college towns of Northampton and Amherst, there is an active independent and alternative rock scene. Many of these bands perform regularly in Springfield's Club Quarter, at venues such as Fat Cats Bar & Grille, Theodore's, and the restored Paramount Theater. In the Club Quarter, centered on Stearns Square, nightly offerings include blues, college rock, jazz, indie, hip-hop, jam band, Latin, hard rock, pop, metal, karaoke, piano bars and DJs.

Each Thursday during the summer, a free concert is held at Stearns Square to coincide with Bike Night , a happening that in general attracts thousands of motorcyclists to the Quarter and thousands more spectators to hear live music.

Larger rock and hip-hop acts play at the 7,000-seat MassMutual Center. The arena has played host to artists such as Marilyn Manson, Alice Cooper, Nirvana, David Bowie, David Lee Roth, Poison, Pearl Jam, and Bob Dylan.

Periódicos

Springfield's largest local newspaper is The Republican . The Republican used to be the Springfield Union-News & Sunday Republican . Smaller papers such as The Reminder and the Valley Advocate also serve Greater Springfield.

Other newspapers serve specific communities of interest, such as Predvestnik , a Russian-language newspaper, El Pueblo Latino , serving the Hispanic community, Unity First and the " AfAm Point of View " [5]", both of which serve the African-American community, and The Rainbow Times , which serves Springfield's LGBT community.

La vida nocturna

The City of Springfield' Club Quarter is the nightlife capital of the Pioneer Valley and the Knowledge Corridor, featuring approximately 60 dance clubs, bars, music venues, LGBT venues, and after-hours establishments. In general, most clubs, bars, music venues, and other nightspots are located on or near upper Worthington Street, on and around Stearns Square, or on Chestnut Street.

Springfield's Club Quarter features a large (and growing) LGBT nightlife scene at establishments like Oz (397 Dwight Street), Pure (324 Chestnut Street), The Pub Lounge (382 Dwight Street), and Club Xtatic (240 Chesnut Street, featuring dancers). In 2011, LGBT magazine The Advocate ranked Springfield No. 13 among its "New Gay American Cities," ahead of San Diego and Albuquerque, New Mexico. There has been a notable increase in Springfield's LGBT nightlife since Massachusetts legalized gay marriage in 2004.

Lugares

  • Basketball Hall of Fame - housed in a $47 million structure designed by Gwathmey Siegel & Associates, it is a shrine to the world's second most popular sport, basketball. Located in the city where basketball was invented, the facility - built beside the Connecticut River - spans 80,000 square feet (7,400 m 2 ) features numerous restaurants and the WMAS-FM studios. However, it is separated from Springfield's Metro Center by the 8-lane highway, Interstate 91.
  • The Big E - also known as The Eastern States Exposition, it is New England's collective, annual state fair. Held on a permanent fairgrounds approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of Springfield's Metro Center, across the ornate Memorial Bridge in West Springfield, it attracts more than 1 million visitors per year during its 14-17 day run beginning in mid-September.
  • Bright Nights - during the holiday season, Forest Park hosts a nationally renowned, 2+ mile, state-of-the-art lighting extravaganza. Year over year, the numerous lighting displays become creative and elaborate.
  • City Stage - Springfield's best-known playhouse features off-Broadway productions, comedians, and children's programming.
  • Club Quarter - a grouping of 60 clubs, bars, and restaurants around Stearns Square, Worthington and Main Streets. Springfield's variety of nightclubs and entertainment is part of what makes it, according to Yahoo!, one of America's ten best cities for dating. LGBT and dance clubs are integrated with hip-hop, rock, jazz, and blues clubs. Thursday, Friday, and Saturday are particularly busy evenings.
  • Connecticut River Walk Park - a landscaped park that snakes along the Connecticut River, affording views of the Mount Tom Range, Mount Holyoke Range, and Springfield's skyline. However, this park is separated from Springfield by the badly designed, 8-lane Interstate 91 highway, which cuts through three Springfield riverfront neighborhoods, and thus presents a major obstacle to accessing this riverfront park. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute released a plan for Springfield's riverfront, which has given Springfielders cause for hope that Interstate 91 will either be moved or made more easily passable via new design features that would allow people to access the River Walk and the Basketball Hall of Fame.
  • Court Square - a park, referred to as "Springfield's front door," it remains the city's only topographical constant since its founding in 1636. Located on Main Street and surrounded by ornate architecture, including the iconic Springfield Municipal Group, Court Square is the civic heart of Springfield. Until the 1960s, Court Square extended to the Connecticut River; however, as with Olmsted's Forest Park, its connection to the river was severed by the building of the Interstate 91 elevated highway.
  • Dr. Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden - amidst the Quadrangle, there are large, bronze statues of characters from Springfield native Dr. Seuss's books.
  • First Game of Basketball Sculpture - located directly on the site of the first game of basketball, this illuminated sculpture in Springfield's Mason Square commercial district has become a site of pilgrimage for basketball fans from around the world.
  • Forest Park - designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the renowned landscape designer of New York City's Central Park, Springfield's Forest Park is nearly the same size as Central Park at 735 acres (297.4 ha). It features the Zoo at Forest Park; the 31 acres (12.5 ha) Porter Lake; numerous playgrounds; a formal rose garden; 38 tennis courts; a skating arena; numerous basketball and bocce courts; lawn bowling fields; Victorian promenades and water gardens; tree groves; baseball diamonds; numerous statues; an aquatic park; and the Barney Carriage House, where many weddings take place.
  • King Philip's Stockade - an historic, city park where in 1675, the Pocumtuc Indians - organized by Chief Metacomet, also known as King Philip - initiated the Attack on Springfield during King Philip's War. During the attack, approximately 75% of the city was burned.
  • MassMutual Center - formerly known as the Springfield Civic Center, this 8,000-seat arena and convention center received a $71 million renovation in 2003-2005. Located across from historic Court Square in Metro Center, the arena houses two professional sports franchises, the NBADL Springfield Armor and The American Hockey League Springfield Falcons. The venue also attracts big-name concert tours. In the past, it has hosted concerts by Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Van Halen, Marilyn Manson, The Eagles, and Bob Dylan, among many others.
  • Mulberry Street - the street featuring the house that inspired Dr. Seuss's first children's book, the classic And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street.
  • The Puritan - a famous statue designed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens depicting Deacon Samuel Chapin, an early settler of Springfield. "The Puritan" is perhaps St. Gaudens' most celebrated, outdoor sculpture. Originally located in Stearns Square, it has been located in Merrick Park in the Quadrangle for over 100 years and become a symbol of Springfield.
  • The Quadrangle - a campus of five museums surrounding the Dr. Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden, is an extraordinary cultural grouping - especially considering Springfield's medium-size population and small land area. It includes the world-class Museum of Fine Arts, known for its Impressionist and Dutch Renaissance collections, as well as its extensive collection of American masters, including works by Springfielder James McNeill Whistler. The world-class Springfield Science Museum features the United States' first planetarium (built 1931), and a large dinosaur exhibit. The world-class George Walter Vincent Smith Museum is known worldwide for housing the largest collection of Chinese cloisonne outside of China; it also features exotic curiosities like Asian suits of armor, and a collection of marble busts. The Quadrangle also features two regional history museums: the Connecticut Valley Historical Society, which tells the story of "The Great River" and its people, and the new Museum of Springfield History, which showcases the innovations that make Springfield "The City of Progress" during the abolitionist period and Industrial Revolution, which includes the first American-English dictionary, the first gasoline-powered car, the first successful motorcycle company, the first modern fire engine, and dozens of other firsts (see below for a more complete list).
  • St. John's Congregational Church - founded in 1844 as the Sanford Street "Free Church," St. John's Congregational Church is a predominately black church that played a pivotal role in the abolitionist movement. While living in Springfield, John Brown attended services here from 1846 to 1850, and as of 2011, the church still displays John Brown's Bible . It was at this church where John Brown met Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and other prominent abolitionists - and where he later founded the famous, militant League of Gileadites in response to the Fugitive Slave Act. As of 2011, St. John's remains one of the most prominent, predominately black congregations in the Northeastern United States.
  • St. Michael's Cathedral - beside the Quadrangle, this elegant Catholic Church is the seat of the Diocese of Greater Springfield.
  • Stacy Building - the location where, in 1892-93, the Duryea Brothers built the first, American, gasoline-powered car, which in 1895 won the first automobile race in Chicago, Illinois. A model of the Duryea Brothers' first car sits in a tree-shaded park beside the historic location, amidst the restaurants and bars of the Club Quarter.
  • Six Flags New England - located 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Springfield's South End in Agawam, this is the largest amusement park in the Northeast. It features an extensive water park and ten roller-coasters, including the No. 1 ranked roller-coaster in the world for the past decade, Bizarro. In 2011, it debuted another roller-coaster, the Gotham City Gauntlet: Escape from Arkham Asylum.
  • The Springfield Armory National Park - founded by General George Washington and Henry Knox in 1777; the site of Shays' Rebellion in 1787, which led directly to the US Constitutional Convention; the site of numerous technological innovations including the manufacturing advances known as interchangeable parts, the assembly line, and mass production; and the producer of the United States Military's firearms from 1794 to 1968, when the Armory was controversially shut down by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. Today, it is a National Park, National Historic Site, and features a museum that includes one of the world's largest collections of firearms.
  • Symphony Hall - dedicated in 1913 by President William Howard Taft as part of the Springfield Municipal Group, Springfield Symphony Hall features "perfect acoustics." It is home to the progressive Springfield Symphony Orchestra conducted by showman Kevin Rhodes, and also hosts numerous Broadway touring productions.
  • Stearns Square - designed by the renowned artistic team of Stanford White and Augustus Saint-Gaudens in 1897, this small park is the center of Springfield's Club Quarter. It features ornate architectural and sculptural details from the original team's design; however, most of those were meant to accompany The Puritan, and thus moved to storage. Stearns Square hosts a large motorcycle gathering each Thursday evening, and is the site of a summer concert series.

Deportes

Besides Springfield's historic connection with basketball, the city has a rich sporting history. Volleyball was invented in the adjacent city of Holyoke, and the first exhibition match was held in 1896 at the International YMCA Training School, now known as Springfield College.

Ice hockey has been played professionally in Springfield since the 1920s, and Springfield is home to the league headquarters of the American Hockey League. The Springfield Indians of the American Hockey League (now located in Utica, New York) was the oldest minor league hockey franchise in existence. In 1994 the team relocated to Worcester and was replaced by the current Springfield Falcons, who play at the MassMutual Center. For parts of two seasons (1978-80) the NHL Hartford Whalers played in Springfield while their arena was undergoing repairs after a roof collapse. On the amateur level, the Junior A Springfield Olympics played for many years at the Olympia, while American International College's Yellow Jackets compete in NCAA Division I hockey.

Basketball remains a somewhat popular sport in Springfield's sporting landscape. Prior to the 2014-15 season, Springfield was home to the Springfield Armor of the NBA Development League, which began play in 2009 at the MassMutual Center. Beginning in the 2011-2012 season, the Armor was the exclusive affiliate of the Brooklyn Nets. For many years, the Hall of Fame Tip-Off Classic has been the semi-official start to the college basketball season, and the NCAA Division II championships are usually held in Springfield. The Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference will play its championships in Springfield from 2012 to 2014. The New England Blizzard of the ABL played its first game in Springfield, and several minor pro men's and women's teams have called the city home, including the Springfield Fame of the United States Basketball League (the league's inaugural champion in 1985) and the Springfield Hall of Famers of the Eastern Professional Basketball League.

Springfield has had professional baseball in the past, and according to its current mayor, remains intent on pursuing it in the future. The Springfield Giants of the Single- and Double-A Eastern League played between 1957 and 1965. The team was quite successful, winning consecutive championships in 1959, 1960 and 1961, by startling coincidence the same seasons in which the Springfield Indians won three straight Calder Cup championships in hockey. The Giants played at Pynchon Park by the Connecticut River until relocating after the 1965 season. Pynchon Park's grandstands were destroyed by fire the year after in 1966. Before that time, the Springfield Cubs played in the minor league New England League from 1946 until 1949, after which the league folded; they then played in the International League until 1953. For many years before the Giants, Springfield was also a member of the Eastern League, between 1893 and 1943. In general, the team was named the Ponies, but it also carried the nicknames of "Maroons" (1895), "Green Sox" (1917), "Hampdens" (1920-21), "Rifles (1932, 1942-43) and "Nationals" (1939-41). The team located closest are the Valley Blue Sox of the New England Collegiate Baseball League who play their games in nearby Holyoke, but house their team offices at 100 Congress Street in Springfield.

Springfield has an official roller derby team: Pair O Dice City Roller Derby. They are a non-profit organization who uses their roller derby games as fundraisers for groups such as Dakin Animal Shelter and the Shriners. Pair O Dice skaters are featured on the Clean Up ads near the waterfront.

Parques

In 2010, Springfield was cited as the 4th "Greenest City" in the United States - the largest city cited in the Top 10. The recognition noted Springfield's numerous parks, the purity of its drinking water, its regional recycling center, and organizations like ReStore Home Improvement Center, which salvages building materials. Springfield features over 2,400 acres (10 km 2 ) of parkland distributed among 35 urban parks, including the grand, 735 acres (297.4 ha) Forest Park. Well-known parks include the following, among others:

  • Apremont Triangle Park is a triangular, pocket park in front of Springfield's historic Kimball Towers in Metro Center. Named for Springfield's 104th Infantry Regiment, which following the World War I Battle of Apremont, became the first US military unit awarded for heroism by a foreign power, receiving France's highest military honor: the croix de guerre for bravery in combat. The same Springfield unit received the same honor again in World War II. Apremont Triangle Park, steps from both the bohemian Kimball Towers and upper-class Quadrangle-Mattoon Street Historic District offers a place to sit amidst the restaurants on the northern fringe of the Club Quarter.
  • Armoury Commons is a rectangular park just south of the Springfield Armory, located at the corner of Pearl and Spring Streets in Metro Center. Renovated in 2009, Armoury Commons features several sculptures, including Pynchon Park's original sculpture. The park is often used as a place to play chess and other games.
  • Connecticut River Walk Park is a narrow, landscaped park that snakes along the scenic Connecticut River for several miles. Beginning near the Basketball Hall of Fame, it features jogging trails, benches, boat docks, and plazas - all of which afford scenic vistas of the Connecticut River and Connecticut River Valley. However, Interstate 91's position, height, and ancillary structures - including a 1756-car, below-grade parking lot, (the largest in the city, ) and 20-foot (6 m) stone walls block all views of the Connecticut River, and all but three passages to the park from Metro Center. Despite Springfield's rating as one of the most walkable cities in the US, due to the poor planning of I-91, this park can be difficult to reach on foot.
  • Court Square has been Springfield's one topographical constant since colonial days - it is located in Metro Center. Featuring monuments to Springfield's hero during King Philip's War of 1675, Miles Morgan; President William McKinley; and a Civil War memorial Court Square is surrounded by extraordinarily fine architecture, including HH Richardson's Richardsonian Romanesque Courthouse; the Springfield Municipal Group featuring the Greek Revival City Hall, Symphony Hall, and the 300-foot (91 m) Italianate Campanile; and also the 1819 reconstruction of the 1638 Old First Church. Other buildings included are the One Financial Plaza skyscraper, UMass Amherst's Urban Design Studio in the Byers Block (b. 1835;) and, across Main Street, the MassMutual Center arena and convention center.
  • Five Mile Pond is a Naturalist park and pond approximately 5 miles (8 km) from Springfield's Metro Center in the Pine Point neighborhood of Springfield. There are several, glacial lakes in the Five Mile Pond area, including Lake Lorraine, Loon Pond, and Long Pond. Five Mile Pond is popular with boaters.
  • Forest Park is one of the United States' largest urban parks (at 735 acres (297.4 ha)) and also one of its most historically important urban parks. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted - the famed designer of New York City's Central Park - Forest Park is nearly as large, and similarly diverse. Amenities include the Zoo at Forest Park, which features many exotic animals; the United States' first public swimming pool (1899;) numerous playgrounds; an ice-skating rink; a formal rose garden; the 31 acres (12.5 ha) Porter Lake, which features fishing and paddle-boating; 38 tennis courts; numerous basketball and bocce courts; lawn bowling fields; Victorian promenades and water gardens; dozens of hiking and walking trails; an aquatic park; numerous sculptures; and the Carriage House of Springfielder Everett Hosmer Barney, the man who invented the ice skate and popularized the roller skate during the 19th century. During the holiday season, Forest Park hosts the nationally renowned lighting display, "Bright Nights."
  • King Philip's Stockade is an historic park, famous as the site where Native Americans organized the 1675 Sack of Springfield; The Stockade features numerous picnic pavilions, excellent views of the Connecticut River Valley, and a sculpture of The Windsor Indian , who tried in vain to warn the residents of Springfield of coming danger.
  • Leonardo da Vinci Park is a small greenspace (0.4 acres), located in the historically Italian South End of Springfield. It features ornamental perimeter fencing surrounding a playground. Leonardo da Vinci Park was renovated in 2009 and now features new picnic tables and playground equipment.
  • Pynchon Park is an architecturally interesting brutalist-style city park, which was dedicated in 1977. It links Springfield's Metro Center with the Quadrangle cultural grouping, (the museums and sculptures sit atop a steep bluff). Mostly made of poured concrete, but featuring a waterfall, lush greenery, and fountains, Pynchon Park received numerous accolades from the American Institute of Architecture for "enhancing the quality of the urban environment in the core of the city." It features two levels and a distinctive elevator.
  • Stearns Square is a rectangular park between Worthington Street and Bridge Street in Springfield's Club Quarter, located in Metro Center. Designed by the creative 'dream-team' of Stanford White and Augustus Saint-Gaudens. It was there that St. Gaudens' most famous work, The Puritan , originally stood. The Puritan has since been moved to the Quadrangle, at the corner of State and Chestnut Streets; however, White's and St. Gaudens' original fountain, bench, and turtle sculptures, all meant to compliment The Puritan , remain in Stearns Square.
  • Van Horn Park is a large park in the Hungry Hill section of Liberty Heights in Springfield. It features two ponds and a reservoir. The Reservoir and lower dam are not generally accessible to the public. The Main Entrance is on Armory Street near Chapin Terrace.


Media and communication

Medio social

Springfield's Office of the Mayor publishes current events and initiatives relevant to the City of Springfield: Facebook Twitter City's web page Springfield, MA

Televisión

Springfield has a long history of broadcast television, including two of the oldest UHF television stations on the air today.

++WFXQ-CD rebroadcasts WWLP.

  • WWLP, UHF 22 (Digital 11). WWLP is the NBC and CW affiliate for the area. While WWLP is licensed to Springfield, they moved their studios to nearby Chicopee from their old studios atop Provin Mountain. WWLP is the oldest TV station to air regularly scheduled programming in the market, launching its schedule on March 17, 1953, on Channel 61. WWLP also operated WRLP (UHF 32), a UHF station licensed to Greenfield, whose transmitter was in Winchester, New Hampshire as well as W69AQ (UHF 69), a low power station that transmitted from the WWLP tower on Provin Mountain. WWLP remains the only full-power station in the market with an analog television signal on the air.
  • WGGB, UHF 40 (Digital 40). WGGB is the ABC and primary Fox, secondary MyNetworkTV affiliate for the area. WGGB is owned and operated by Meredith Broadcasting and its studios are on Liberty Street near the Chicopee line. WGGB (originally WHYN) signed on on April 1, 1953 on Channel 55. In 1958, WHYN switched to UHF 40. Guy Gannett Broadcasting bought the station in 1979 and changed its call sign to the current WGGB-TV effective at the start of the following year. In 2008, WGGB launched a secondary service called "Fox 6", named after its channel position on the local Comcast cable TV lineup. FOX6 also appears on WGGB's DTV sub-channel 40.2. WGGB's analog television signal signed off permanently in late November 2008, due to a transmitter failure. WGGB and WSHM-LD broadcast local news under the branding "Western Mass News", and maintain a relationship with the Springfield Republican .
  • WSHM-LD, VHF 3.5 (Digital 21). WSHM-LD is Springfield's CBS affiliate operated by Hartford's WFSB. WSHM is owned and operated by Meredith Broadcasting and shares studios with WGGB on Liberty Street near the Chicopee line. WSHM-LD and WGGB broadcast local news under the branding "Western Mass News", and maintain a relationship with the Springfield Republican . WSHM-LD was formerly W67DF, a translator of TBN, before being sold to Meredith. WSHM-LD is referred to as "CBS 3", denoting its cable channel assignment within the market and to encourage long-time viewers of WFSB to stay with WSHM-LD.
  • WGBY, UHF 57 (Digital 58 until April 18, 2009, Digital 22 thereafter). WGBY is the PBS affiliate for the area. WGBY's studios are in downtown Springfield, near Interstate 91 and the Conrail train lines. WGBY signed on in 1963. WGBY is owned by Boston-based WGBH. WGBY signed off their analog signal permanently in November 2008, to allow for the replacement of transmission antennas.

Cable operators

Springfield proper is serviced exclusively by Comcast cable. Springfield had a unique "dual plant" cable system from 1980 until 2001. All homes wired for cable had two cable drops run into their house.

Radio

Springfield was home to the first commercially licensed radio station in the United States, and the oldest radio station of any kind in New England: WBZ, which broadcast live from Springfield's luxurious Hotel Kimball at 140 Chestnut Street, (now the Kimball Towers Condominiums) before moving to Boston in 1931.



Transportación

Suelo

Springfield is called the Crossroads of New England because it is the major shipping nexus from New York City, Boston, Montreal and the Great Lakes (via Albany, New York). Much of the cargo heading from one of these places to another crosses through the City of Springfield. As a geographical trade center, Springfield has more advantages than just being equidistant to these other large trade centers - it sits beside the Connecticut River, on some of the most fertile farmland in the Northeast, served by numerous rails and Interstate Highways, including I-90 (Mass Pike) and I-91, which connect New Haven, Hartford, Holyoke, Northampton, and Vermont to Springfield. One of the few spurs of I-91 in Massachusetts, I-291, runs through Springfield, and provides a secondary connection between I-90 and I-91. (There is an unnumbered connector in West Springfield).

Carril

Springfield has an Amtrak station served by trains destined for New York City, Washington, DC, Philadelphia, Boston, Vermont, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, Montreal, Albany, New York, Buffalo, New York, Cleveland, Ohio, and Chicago. Currently, Amtrak operates out of a self-built platform following the 1973 close of Springfield's grand 1926 Union Station. In 2011, Springfield's Union Station will receive a $70 million renovation, becoming an "intermodal transportation facility," allowing Peter Pan Bus, Greyhound Bus, and the PVTA to occupy a modernist space next door the re-built, 1926 Union Station. The renovated Union Station will serve as a nexus for Amtrak's re-tooled Vermonter , which in 2014, will begin to follow the tracks of the more direct, former Montrealer route. This will allow Springfield to become the hub of an intercity commuter line headed north, with two stops in Springfield, 2 stops in Chicopee, one (or perhaps two) stops in Holyoke, and one stop each in Northampton, South Deerfield, Greenfield, and Brattleboro, Vermont.

In addition to Springfield's intercity commuter rail line headed north, Springfield also stands to benefit from a high-speed intercity commuter/freight rail from the south. The New Haven-Hartford-Springfield Commuter Rail Line has received complete funding from Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and of April 2010, is nearing complete funding from the Federal Government and the State of Connecticut. The trains on The Knowledge Corridor Route between New Haven and Springfield will, it has been reported, reach speeds of 110 mph (177 km/h). The project is scheduled to begin in 2012 and be completed by 2015.

Springfield-area freight yards stand to profit tremendously from the city's increased rail traffic. There are no major freight yards in Springfield proper, but CSOR and CSX serve the West Springfield Yard across the Connecticut River.

Autobús

Local transit buses running into and out of the city use a facility owned and operated by Peter Pan Bus Lines, which is headquartered in Springfield at the corner of Main and Liberty Streets, next to the Gothic arch that denotes entrance into Metro Center Springfield. As of 2011, Peter Pan's Bus Terminal is need of a major aesthetic overhaul - the opportunity for Peter Pan, Greyhound, and the PVTA to move across the street to Springfield's Unions Station intermodal facility should render the point moot. Plans call for a bus station to be built on the plot adjacent to Union Station - the site of the former Hotel Charles - with a 23-bay bus terminal on lower levels and a 400-space public parking lot on upper levels.

Currently, the PVTA, headquartered at the dilapidated Peter Pan Terminal, provides services to the cities of Springfield, Chicopee, West Springfield, Westfield, and Holyoke. In September 2010, the City of Holyoke opened a new state-of-the-art bus station across the street from its centrally located Veterans Park. That bus station acts as the PVTA's main point of transfer between Hampden County in the south, and Hampshire county in the north.

Aire

  • Bradley International Airport, in Windsor Locks, Connecticut is 12 miles (19 km) south of Metro Center Springfield, and 12 miles north of Hartford. It features over 100 daily departures to 30 destinations on nine airlines.

Other airports serving the Springfield include:

  • Westover Metropolitan Airport is 5 miles (8 km) from downtown Springfield. It is 3 miles (5 km) from the Massachusetts Turnpike.
  • Logan International Airport is served by most, prominent international airlines. Boston is approximately 80 miles (130 km) northeast of Springfield.


Ciudad hermana



Gente notable

  • Creighton Abrams, US Army general, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and Commander of Operations during the Vietnam War
  • Weston Adams, longtime president of the NHL's Boston Bruins
  • Johnny Appleseed, American folk hero, spent his childhood and young adulthood in Springfield
  • Joe Arpaio, "America's Toughest Sheriff," known for "tent city" prison in Maricopa County, Arizona
  • Adele Addison, soprano, acclaimed in classical music during the 1950s-1960s
  • Joel Asaph Allen, zoologist
  • George Ashmun, founder of the US Republican Party and Springfield lawyer
  • Travis Best, National Basketball Association player
  • Alfred Ely Beach, inventor of New York City's subway system
  • RP Blackmur, poet and literary critic
  • Nina Blackwood, original MTV VJ and Sirius Satellite Radio DJ
  • Ran Blake, jazz pianist
  • Thomas Blanchard, inventor of lathe (1819), which led to technological advances known as interchangeable parts and assembly line manufacturing; also, inventor of first modern car - powered by steam (1825)
  • Herbert Blomstedt, orchestra conductor of Danish National Symphony Orchestra, and symphony orchestras in San Francisco and Stockholm, Sweden
  • Chester Bowles, former Governor of Connecticut
  • Samuel Bowles, journalist, founder of Springfield Republican , one of founders of United States Republican Party
  • Lloyd Wheaton Bowers, lawyer and former US Solicitor General
  • Ron Brace, National Football League player
  • Milton Bradley, inventor of parlor games and game-manufacturer
  • Chuck Bresnahan, NFL coach
  • John Brown, abolitionist
  • Harold R. Bull, completed the weather report that enabled the D-Day launch during World War II
  • Nick Buoniconti, NFL Hall of Famer
  • Thornton Burgess, children's author, known for "Peter Cottontail"
  • Chris Capuano, Major League Baseball pitcher
  • John Cena, WWE wrestler
  • Amzi Chapin, cabinet maker, singing-school teacher and shapenote composer
  • Chester W. Chapin, railroad magnate
  • Deacon Samuel Chapin, early settler of Springfield, 1642
  • Thornton Chase, first American convert to the Bahá'í Faith
  • Shamus Culhane, lead animator at Walt Disney Studios, who produced such classics as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
  • Billy Curtis, actor, best known as a Munchkin in "The Wizard of Oz", and "Terror of Tinytown"
  • Bill Danoff, member of Starland Vocal Band and wrote No. 1 hit "Afternoon Delight"
  • Donald Davidson, philosopher, known for studies regarding communication
  • Jim Douglas, Governor of Vermont from 2003 to 2010
  • Vinny Del Negro, NBA player and head coach
  • David W. Evans, professor of psychology and neuroscience, Bucknell University
  • Raffael Ferri, author of works on DNA
  • George Bowman Ferry, architect
  • Theodore Foley, Roman Catholic priest, nominated for sainthood in 2008
  • June Foray, voice actress for animated films
  • Bertram Forer, psychologist, known for the Forer effect
  • Carole Fredericks, French musician whose brother was Springfield blues great Taj Mahal
  • John Garand, weapons inventor
  • Theodor Seuss Geisel (aka Dr. Seuss), writer and illustrator best known for his children's books
  • Frederick H. Gillett, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1919 to 1925, United States Senator from 1925 to 1931
  • Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanized rubber
  • Mike Gravel, Senator from Alaska
  • Chester Harding, portrait painter during 19th century
  • Richard F. Heck, awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2010
  • Victor Heflin, American football player
  • Iris Holland, Massachusetts state legislator
  • Elizur Holyoke, early explorer of Western Massachusetts, for whom Holyoke, Massachusetts and the Holyoke Range are named
  • Joseph French Johnson, economist, wrote the inspirational "The Price of Success"
  • Alan Kay, computer scientist
  • Derek Kellogg, University of Massachusetts men's basketball head coach
  • Peter King, sportswriter and TV commentator
  • Stanley King, 11th president of Amherst College
  • Bob Kudelski, professional hockey player
  • Timothy Leary, writer, psychologist and advocate of psychedelic drug research and use
  • Norman Leyden, conductor and clarinetist
  • Edward Tsang Lu, astronaut
  • Arthur MacArthur, Jr., Army general, father of Douglas MacArthur
  • William Manchester, historian, author of The Death of a President and other renowned literary works
  • Rabbit Maranville, professional baseball player, inducted into Baseball Hall of Fame in 1954
  • Tim Mayotte, professional tennis player
  • Miles Morgan, hero of King Philip's War of 1675, a statue of Morgan stands in Springfield's Court Square
  • Horace A. Moses, philanthropist and paper pioneer
  • James Naismith, inventor of basketball
  • Tom Newberry, football player
  • Lowell North, Olympic gold medalist in sailing
  • Larry O'Brien, Postmaster General, Democratic National Committee chairman and Commissioner of the National Basketball Association
  • Paul LaPalme, Major League Baseball pitcher
  • Robert B. Parker, author of Spenser and Jesse Stone novels
  • Joe Philbin, head coach of NFL Miami Dolphins
  • Eleanor Powell, actress, famous tap dancer
  • William Pynchon, founder of City of Springfield; earlier founded Roxbury, Massachusetts; in 1649, wrote America's first banned book
  • Caleb Rice, first Mayor of Springfield, President of MassMutual
  • George Washington Rice, founder of MassMutual Life Insurance
  • William Marsh Rice, founder of Rice University, Houston, Texas
  • Stephen Rivers (1955-2010), political activist and publicist.
  • Peter Robinson, actor and freak show performer
  • Kurt Russell, actor
  • Julia Sanderson, actress, vaudevillian, and namesake of Springfield's Julia Sanderson Theater (now The Paramount Theater)
  • Joe Scibelli, Los Angeles Rams professional football player
  • Mike Scully, writer and producer for The Simpsons
  • Chloë Sevigny, actress
  • Michael Shapiro, actor and voice actor
  • Daniel Shays, leader of Shays' Rebellion
  • Eddie Shore, professional hockey player and owner
  • Stass Shpanin, contemporary visual artist included in Guinness Book of World Records as Youngest Professional Artist in the World
  • David Socha international soccer referee
  • Tommy Tallarico, video game music composer
  • Antonio Thomas, professional wrestler
  • George Tomasini, film editor known for work with Alfred Hitchcock
  • Mike Trombley, former Major League Baseball Pitcher
  • Paige Turco, actress
  • Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Sacco and Vanzetti were falsely accused of murder in a famous American legal case that revealed animosity toward immigrants in 1920s Boston
  • Lynn Vincent, author
  • David Ames Wells, engineer and economist
  • Daniel Baird Wesson, weapons inventor and founder of Smith & Wesson
  • Maura West, Daytime Emmy award winning soap opera actress
  • James McNeill Whistler, painter
  • Terence H. Winkless, film and television director

Notable musical artists

  • The Acacia Strain, deathcore band
  • Agoraphobic Nosebleed, grindcore band
  • All That Remains, metalcore band
  • James Argiro, pianist, composer, arranger, conductor
  • Destrophy, Erik Tisinger, guitarist, from Springfield
  • Carole Fredericks, singer
  • Eddie Fontaine, singer
  • Ashley Gearing, country music artist
  • Killswitch Engage, metalcore band
  • Scott LaFlamme, lead guitarist with Bang Tango
  • Wanita "D. Woods" Woodgette, hip hop artist
  • Taj Mahal, blues musician
  • Tony MacAlpine, fusion musician
  • Joe Morello, jazz drummer with the Dave Brubeck Quartet
  • Mark Mulcahy musician
  • Linda Perry, songwriter, formerly of 4 Non Blondes
  • Shadows Fall, metalcore band
  • Staind, alternative rock band
  • Paul Weston, composer for Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, and others
  • D. Woods, member of group Danity Kane
  • Phil Woods, jazz saxophonist with Quincy Jones, Steely Dan, Paul Simon, others


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